UDC 330.88 Abstract Participants exchange commensurate goods not for their cost, and not on their usefulness and profitability of the exchange, seeking at least to the equality of benefits. Marshall Finds Cost – the essence, the equality of values which in various products makes these products equivalent: able to communicate with each other. What is this entity? Proponents of the labor theory of value believe that the essence of this is nothing, as embodied in the value of goods work of all producers of goods. Proponents of the subjective-psychological theory of value believe it – the usefulness of products. Alfred Marshall, trying to create a theory of price formation based on a synthesis of labor and subjective theories of value, stated that the price of goods is defined as the costs of production and usefulness of products that affect the final result in terms of supply and demand. Important finding Marshal is his idea that "normal" value of the cost is only formed under conditions of equilibrium of the market where demand is balanced proposal.
As it turns out, the ideas of Alfred Marshall were so close to an adequate reflection of reality, which is only a logical and terminological apparatus for accurately describing the essence of his ideas. Logical-terminological apparatus DISC – the object of exchange that can meet any requirements people (consumers having the property). Cost of goods determined by the cost of labor embodied in it the whole series of his producers. But this match is taking place only in conditions of absolute the equilibrium of the market.
Master class on making "snowdrops from A to Z" First things first, we need to make such a beautiful meadow with snowdrops in the middle of winter. Embody a tale of 12 months, and we will rejoice and the approaching spring. For making flowers, we need the white, green and yellow beads, and copper wire. Cut the wire to make a petal snowdrops, about 60cm, folds it in half. Now the method of parallel braiding start to make the petals.
First the green beads to make the tip of the lobe, stringing three beads on the wire, and pass through one end of the two, leaving one and closing as if the resulting triangle. Now add one the sides of the white beads, and by mid-green leaves. Petal finish before the end of the scheme: 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-7-6-5-4-3-2-2-1 now makes the second lobe in the same way, only once does not finish until the end of a stop on the 2 green beads The remainder of the tip of the wire pass through it into the finished petal between the second and third layer (ie, between two green beads and two green) is now on stringing two green beads and closes, we have obtained that connectivity to the petals sides together, and now again pass through the wire between the two and one green beads and pulling on the wire this one more beads and twists the ends. The remaining petals attach to these same method, only have 5 petals, but the last petal to join in on the two side, to get the finished bud. Now we make the stamens, they will be in each bud on the three pieces. Connect them by three.
Paste the stamens in bud. We obtained here a bunch, I did all buds, but you can do and not disclosed buds connecting not have five petals, and three. When the buds are ready, begin to make leaves for the snowdrops. For the leaves need to green house, by French braiding are doing on the two arcs on each side, and twist the resulting petal that he had ornately intricate shape. Such lobes would be 5 or 6 if desired, of different lengths and shapes. our clearing and slap banochku.Delaem zagipsovyvaniya mixture of gypsum and water the consistency of thick cream and pours the mixture into our mold. After that, stick in the plaster podstavochku our snowdrops. After that draw from gypsum snowy hill. With an arc of hills make the steps to this hill you can climb. Now gipsuem barrel, making a slurry of gypsum and water and brush on the stems causing podsnezhnikov.A now begin dyeing. Mixing white and blue flowers begin to paint the bottom of the glade. And now take up the stems and paint them green. Do not forget to do a bit of land here and ready to work, which should dry up, and then to varnish paint with clear varnish. After painting, I put the next snegovichkov and now they can ride on our hill as they want. That's all I wish you luck and success!
With the camera, scientists have found Using high-resolution camera, he discovered the subtle brush strokes in the eyebrows and eyelashes that Leonardo originally gave the wife of Florentine merchant. After centuries, however, light lines or faded or were wiped out in a careless restoration, said the Cat in the exhibition of works by Leonardo San Francisco. 'If you look at the Mona Lisa's left eye at close range, it clearly shows that the cracks around it easily smoothed out – he said.
– This may be because one day the curator or restorer 'Cleared' eyes and in doing so destroyed the eyelashes and eyebrow. " Pascal Cote drew experts from the Louvre to study his 240-megapixel scans the picture. "With just one photo, you can better understand the structure and pattern understand that Leonardo was a genius. " 49-year-old cat also claims that Leonardo beat the location of two fingers on his left hand, the Mona Lisa was originally painted it with a broad face and a smile more expressive than as over work, and put his hand up her veil, which is now completely tarnished and should not be seen. In addition, he argues that through his work revealed the true colors of the picture. Today the portrait is dominated by the heavy green, yellow and shades of brown, but the cat is sure that the original colors were close to a light blue and sparkling white.