Farsightedness, hyperopia, thick glasses, rubbed the bridge with the fingerprints from the rim … Familiar words and feelings associated with them? Nowadays, almost every second man and one woman aged over 50 years wear glasses with a thick glass! This means that about 40% of middle age have a visual impairment by type of presbyopia. Under the terrible title, "presbyopia" understand global process that occurs throughout the body. Eyesight is designed so that all the light falling on svetovospriimchivy layer (retina) is 4 light-refracting first layer – the cornea, anterior chamber fluid, lens, vitreous body. Each layer of its functionality and purpose. vSeychas will discuss the form of eye as a whole.

The clarity of images on the retina is affected not only the ability of the lens to change its curvature and hence the focus. Also on the clarity affects shape of the eye – in fact at the same power index and different focal length, sharpness, too, will be different. According to the theory of Bates in the normal form eyes changing every moment – that contribute to the six eye muscles – 2 and 4 skew lines. Oblique muscles of the eye pose a horizontal ellipse in longitudinal section, that is, squeezing it from the outside toward the center, thus increasing the necessary focal length. A straight – from the eye creates a vertical ellipse, that is, squeezing it from front to back, reducing the required focal length, which can reconstruct the lens. The fact is that during adolescence, youth, maturity, normally straight and oblique muscles work in harmony and with equal force.

How To Cope With Panic Attacks

Panic attack – one of the worst states that people can experience: sudden palpitations, cold sweat, trembling hands, shortness of breath. All this is accompanied by a panic fear, fear of death, fear go crazy, feeling that the soul leaves the body. This state has experienced MA Berlioz thus May evening: "He suddenly stopped hiccuping, his heart was knocked for a moment and somewhere has failed, then returned, but with a blunt needle, entrenched in it. In addition, Berlioz embraced unfounded, but equally strong fear that he wanted to immediately run away from Patriarch's Ponds without looking back. "Panic attack catches of both men and women, young and fully mature individuals.

More often it happens in times of hormonal changes the body after an emotional or intellectual overexertion, alcohol abuse or tobacco. Her attacks are sporadic, but may recur with a certain intervals for many years. With her successful fight psychiatrists, psychotherapists and psychoanalysts. But they first need to get! So, what do you do if you are attacked by panic? Well, if it occurs at home or at work – immediately go to the bathroom, loosen the belt and collar, and hands – under the hot water, if possible – and feet. Breathe deeply, with a rapid breath in through your nose and exhale as slowly through a gap in her lips. McDougall Program has much to offer in this field. Make a warm drink, but only without the caffeine! It would be nice and something light to eat.

Try to sleep at least briefly. Now assume that there was trouble on the streets or in public transport. Breathe in the same way – quick breath in through your nose and exhale slowly through a slit in the lips. Fingers (and better – the nails) we press on the little finger of your other hand to the spot where the nail ends. Opportunities to warm their hands and feet do not? Not a problem – imagine that the center of the feet and palms of you are still hot embers. Concentrate on reading to himself some well-known poem from childhood. For example, the boy, put him in a dog sled. Try to answer the questions looked like a boy and a dog, why the dog ran away? How in principle can be attached to a dog sled? etc. Those who believe the state of a panic attack trying to get out of the body of the soul, it is advised to avoid this with his hands clasped in a "lock" when bent fingers of one hand cling to the bent fingers of the other, and with a voltage pull your hands in opposite directions. It is worth mentioning that the medieval monks similar conditions to explain the pride subjected to adversity. Surprisingly, not bad helps emotional memory about a certain situation where you have offended, humiliated. Finally, if all else fails and you are sure that now fall into a swoon, command me: "Fall!" And would not fall. This advice belongs, by the way, Chekhov.

Biologist Bruce Ames

Some theory. So far, the most common 'free radical' theory of aging, indicating that the mechanism of damage of macromolecules and cells by free radicals, as the basis for aging, disease. The main provision of a free radical theory of aging was formulated in 1954 by D. Harman, assume that a universal cause of aging is free radical oxidation of lipids, fats and proteins of all organisms oxygen. To broaden your perception, visit McDougall Program. Paradoxically, the fact is that the main enemy of cells – the oxygen. More precisely, the active forms of oxygen molecules – free radicals, which destroy the cell from within.

Free radical – it's part of the molecules at the external level which is not paired electron. This molecule is extremely aggressive and 'concerned' in order to find a couple of his lone electron. In search of a pair is ready to react with any substance, able to give her the electron. In the cells of living organisms produced several types of free radicals, of which the most aggressive-oxygen radicals (superoxide) and hydroxyl radicals. Biologist Bruce Ames of Berkeley believes that free radicals attack the DNA molecule up to 10 thousand times a day (and it happens in every cell, imagine what kind of large-scale military operations are conducted in our bodies). One of the main sources of radicals mitochondrion is a major supplier of energy, for the cell. Active forms of oxygen molecules affect the DNA itself and interfere with the mechanisms work to restore it. The oxidation process occurring in the mitochondria, and no harmful free radicals – produced with biological debris interferes with the normal functioning of cells.